Office: The Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania,
3620 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6220; Telephone 215+898-7051, Fax 215+898-2024
Home: 510 South 24th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19146-1002; Telephone 215+545-9356, Fax 215+545-9357
Ph.D. in Communications, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1967.
Diploma in Design, Ulm School of Design, Germany, 1961.
Ingenieur (grad.), State Engineering School Hanover, Germany, 1954.
Memberships: International Communication Association (ICA)
American Society for Cybernetics (ASC)
International Society for Systems Science (ISSS)
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Institut für Kybernetik Berlin e.V.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Publizistik und Kommunikationswissenschaft, (honorary)
European Communication Research an Education Association
Offices: Trustee, American Society for Cybernetics, ASC, 1999 to date
Chair, Council of the International Federation of Communication Associations, 1991-now.
President, International Communication Association, ICA 1984-85.
Board Member and Ombudsman, ASC, 1980-83, 1991-94.
ASC Delegate to AAAS's Section T, Information, Computing and Communication, 1998-now.
ICA Delegate to AAAS's Section T, Information, Computing and Communication, 1978-81.
Member at Large of ICA's Board of Directors, 1977-80.
Chair, Information Systems Division, Member of the Board and Vice President of ICA, 1972-76.
Member of the editorial boards of:
E-journal on Constructivist Foundations, 2004-now
Artifact; Journal of Digital Design, 2003-now
Communication and Information Science, 1986-2001;
Communication Methodologies and Measures, 2006-now
Communication Monographs, 1985-89;
Communication Research Reports 1985-2001;
Communication Research, 1974-93;
Communication Studies, 2007-2009
Communication Theory, 1989-2004;
Communication Yearbook, 1977-80, 1984-89;
Communications, The European Journal of Communication Research, 1985-now;
Cybernetics & Human Knowing, 1991-now.
Human Communication Research, 1977-80, 1985-89, 1998-2004.
Informatologia Yugoslavica, 1985-91;
International Journal of Cultural Studies, 1997-2007
Journal of Communication, 1984-92; 2002-now
Reviewer for: National Science Foundation (NSF)
Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies (NIAS)
Israel Science Foundation
Austrian Science Fund (FWF)
Psychological Reports, Perceptual and Motor Skills
Public Opinion Quarterly
The Sociological Quarterly
Journal of the American Statistical Association
Journal for Peace Research
Management Communication Quarterly
Journalism: Theory, Practice & Criticism
Activities:Organizer of two workshops on Computer Applications in Content Analysis at ICA conferences in Acapulco, 2001, and Washington DC, 2002.
Books and Monographs
With Reinhart Butter. Die Semantische Wende; Eine Neue Grundlage für das Design. Frankfurt/Main: Form Verlag (in press).
A Tartalomelemzés Módszertanának Alapjai. Budapest: Balassi Kiad, 1995. (Hungarian translation of Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology).
Design: A Discourse on Meaning; A Work Book. Philadelphia PA: University of the Arts, Summer 1994.
Metodologia de analisis de contenido: teoria y practica. Barcelona-Buenos Aires-Mexico: Ediciones Paidos, 1990. (Spanish translation of Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology).
Japanese translation of a revised version of Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Tokyo: Keiso Communication, 1990.
Information Theory: Structural Models for Qualitative Data. 96 pages. Beverly Hills CA: Sage Publications, 1986.
A Dictionary of Cybernetics. Norfolk VA: The American Society for Cybernetics, 1986.
Analisi del Contenuto; Introduzione Methodologica. Introduzione di Enzo Campelli. Torino: ERI, 1983. (Italian translation of Content Analysis; An Introduction to its Methodology).
Content Analysis; An Introduction to its Methodology. 188 pages. Beverly Hills CA: Sage, 1980.
An Examination of Content Analysis: A Proposal for a Framework and an Information Calculus for Message Analytic Situations. 400 pages. Ph.D. Dissertation. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1967.
Über den Zeichen- und Symbolcharakter von Gegenständen: Versuch zu einer Zeichentheorie für die Programmierung von Produktformen in sozialen Kommunikationsstrukturen. 138 pages. Diplom Thesis. Hochschule für Gestaltung, Ulm, 1961.
Design in the Age of Information, A report to the National Science Foundation (NSF). 184 pages. Design Research Laboratory, School of Design, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 1997.
A special issue devoted to Product Semantics, with Reinhart Butter. 140 pages. Design Issues 5,2, 1989.
A special issue devoted to Product Semantics, with Reinhart Butter. 32 pages. Innovations 3,2, 1984.
A special issue devoted to Autopoiesis with Milan Zeleny (Ed.) 39 pages. Cybernetic Forum 10, 2&3, 1981.
Communication and Control in Society. (Ed.). 597 pages. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1979.
The Analysis of Communication Content; Developments in Scientific Theories and Computer Techniques. With George Gerbner, Ole R. Holsti, William J. Paisley, Philip J. Stone (Eds.) 529 pages. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969.
An Introduction to Product Semantics, in Klaus Krippendorff and Reinhart Butter. Die Semantische Wende; Eine Neue Grundlage für das Design. Frankfurt/Main: Form Verlag (in press)
Principales metáforas de la comunicación y algunas reflexiones constructivistas acerca de su utilización. Chapter 4, pages 107-146 in Marcelo Pakman (Ed.). Construcciones de la Experiencia Humana. Barcelona, Spain: Gedisa editorial, 1997.
A Trajectory of Artificiality and New Principles of Design for the Information Age. Pages 91-95 in Klaus Krippendorff (Ed.) Design in the Age of Information, A report to the National Science Foundation (NSF). 184 pages. Design Research Laboratory, School of Design, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 1997.
Seeing Oneself through Others’ Eyes in Social Inquiry. Chapter 2, pages 47-72 in Michael Huspeck and Gary P. Radford (Eds.). Transgressing Discourses; Communication and the Voice of Other. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1997.
On the Reliability of Unitizing Continuous Data. Chapter 2, pages 47-76 in Peter V. Marsden (Ed.). Sociological Methodology, 1995, Vol. 25. Cambridge MA: Blackwell, 1995.
Redesigning Design; An Invitation to a Responsible Future. Pages 138-162 in Päivi Tahkokallio & Susann Vihma (Eds.) Design - Pleasure or Responsibility? Helsinki: University of Art and Design, 1995.
The Past of Communication's Hoped-For Future. Pages 42-52 in Mark R. Levy & Michael Gurevich (Eds.). Defining Media Studies; Reflections on the Future of the Field. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. (Originally JoC 43,3:34-44, 1993)
A Recursive Theory of Communication. Pages 78-104 in David Crowley and David Mitchell (Eds.) Communication Theory Today. Cambridge UK: Polity Press, 1994.
Der Verschwundene Bote; Metaphern und Modelle der Kommunication. Pages 79-113 in Klaus Merten, Siegfried J. Schmidt & Siegfried Weischenberg (Eds.) Die Wirklichkeit der Medien; Eine Einführung in die Kommunikationswissenschaft. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1994.
Two Paths in Search of (the) Meaning (of Things). Pages 113-142 in Michael Titzmann (Ed.) Zeichen(theorie) in der Praxis. Passau, Germany: Wissenschaftsverlag Rothe, 1993.
Schritte zu einer konstruktivistischen Erkenntnistheorie der Massenkommunikation (G. Bentele & M Rühl, transl.), pages 19-51. Commentary by Klaus Merten, Horst Reimann, Lutz Erbring and Ulrich Saxer, pages 52-73. In Günter Bentele and Manfred Rühl (Eds.) Theorien Öffentlicher Kommunikation. München, Germany: Ölschlaeger, 1993.
Transcending Semiotics; Toward Understanding Design for Understanding. Pages 24-47 in Susann Vihma (Ed.) Objects and Images; Studies in Design and Advertising. Helsinki: University of Industrial Arts, 1992.
Reconstructing (some) Communication Research Methods. Chapter 7, pages 115-142 in Frederic Steier (Ed.) Research and Reflexivity. London, England: Sage, 1991.
Product Semantics: A Triangulation and Four Design Theories. Pages a3-a23 in Seppo Väkevä (Ed.) Product Semantics '89. Helsinki, Finland: University of Industrial Arts, 1990.
Models and Metaphors of Communication. Manuscript for a textbook chapter and radio program for an educational series "Media and Communication, Construction of Realities" published, translated and aired by Hessischer Rundfunk, Frankfurt, Germany, 1990. Published as: Der verschwundene Bote; Metaphern und Modelle der Kommunikation. Studienbrief 3: 11-50. Medien und Kommunikation, Konstruktionen von Wirklichkeiten. Weinheim & Basel: Beltz Verlag, 1990.
Content Analysis. Pages 403-407 in Erik Barnouw et al. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Communication, Vol. 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Cybernetics. Pages 443-446 in Erik Barnouw et al. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Communications, Vol. 1. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Information Theory. Pages 314-320 in Erik Barnouw et al. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Communication, Vol 2. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Shannon, Claude. Pages 58-61 in Erik Barnouw et al. (Ed.) International Encyclopedia of Communications, Vol. 4. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989,
On the Ethics of Constructing Communication. Presidential address delivered at the International Communication Association Conference on Paradigm Dialogues, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 26, 1985. Chapter 4, pages 66-96 in Brenda Dervin, Larry Grossberg, Barbara J. O'Keefe and Ellen Wartella (Eds.) Rethinking Communication: Paradigm Issues, Vol.I. Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications, 1989.
A Heretic Communication about Communication about Communication about Reality. Keynote address presented at the 40th Anniversary of the Institute of Communication Research, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, March 18-19, 1988. Chapter 10, pages 257-276, in Miriam Campanella (Ed.). Between Rationality and Cognition. Turin and Geneva: Albert Meynier, 1988.
Paradigms for Communication and Development with Emphasis on Autopoiesis. Chapter 14, pages 189-208 in D. Lawrence Kincaid (Ed.) Communication Theory: Eastern and Western Perspectives. New York: Academic Press, 1987.
Produktsemantik. Pages 58-69 in Martin Krampen and Horst Kächele (Eds.) Umwelt, Gestaltung und Persönlichkeit; Reflexionen 30 Jahre nach der Gründung der Ulmer Hochschule für Gestaltung. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1986.
Paradox and Information. Chapter 2, in Brenda Dervin and Melvin J. Voigt (Eds.) Progress in Communication Sciences, 5:45-71, 1984.
Validity in Content Analysis. Chapter 3, pages 69-112 in Ekkehard Mochmann (Ed.) Computerstrategien für die Kommunikationsanalyse. Frankfurt/New York: Campus, 1980.
Clustering. Chapter 9, pages 259-308 in Peter R. Monge and Joseph N. Cappella (Eds.) Multivariate Techniques in Communication Research. New York: Academic Press, 1980.
Viestinta ja jarjestelmateoria. Chapter 1.2, pages 43-71 in Elja Erholm and Leif Aberg, (Eds.) Viestinnan Virtauksia (The flow of Communication). Helsinki: Otava Oy, 1978.
Information Systems, Theory and Research: An Overview. Pages 149-171 in Brent D. Ruben, (Ed.) Communication Yearbook I. New Brunswick NJ: Transactions, 1977.
The Systems Approach to Communication. Chapter 10, pages 138-163 in Brent D. Ruben and John Y. Kim (Eds.) General Systems Theory and Human Communication. Rochelle Park NJ: Hayden Book Co., 1975.
Information Theory. Chapter 17, pages 351-389 in Gerhard J. Hanneman and William J. McEvan (Eds.), Communication and Behavior. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley, 1975.
Bivariate Agreement Coefficients for Reliability of Data. Chapter 8, pages 139-150 in Edgar R. Borgatta and George W. Bohrnstedt (Eds.), Sociological Methodology 1970, Vol. 2. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 1970.
The Television World of Violence, with Marten Brouwer, Cedric C. Clark and George Gerbner. Pages 311-339, 519-591 in Robert K. Baker and Sandra J. Ball. Mass Media and Violence, Vol. IX. A Report to the National Commission on the causes and prevention of violence. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969.
Models of Messages: Three Prototypes. Chapter 4, pages 69-106 in George Gerbner, Ole R. Holsti, Klaus Krippendorff, William Paisley, Philip J. Stone (Eds.). The Analysis of Communication Content; Developments in Scientific Theories and Computer Techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969.
Introduction to Theories and Analytical Constructs (for Content Analysis). Pages 3-16 in George Gerbner, Ole R. Holsti, Klaus Krippendorff, William Paisley, Philip J. Stone (Eds.) The Analysis of Communication Content: Developments in Scientific Theories and Computer Techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969.
Wenn ich einen Stuhl sehe - sehe ich dann wirklich nur ein Zeichen? When I See a Chair - Must I See a Sign of It? formdiskurs 5,2: 98-107, 1998.
With Nelda Samarel and Jacqueline Fawcett: Women's perceptions of group support and adaptation to breast cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28,6, 1998:1259-1268.
A Second-order Cybernetics of Otherness. Systems Research 13,3:311-328, 1996.
Undoing Power. Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12,2:101-132, 1995.
Major Metaphors of Communication and some Constructivist Reflections on their Use. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 2,1: 3-25, 1993.
The Past of Communication's Hoped-For Future. Journal of Communication 43,3: 34-44, 1993.
Where Meanings Escape Functions, with Reinhart Butter. Design Management Journal 4,2: 30-37, 1993.
Conversation or Intellectual Imperialism in Comparing Communication (Theories). Communication Theory 3,3: 252-266, 1993.
Information, Information Society and Some Marxian Propositions. Information and Behavior 5: 487-521, 1992.
The Power of Communication and the Communication of Power; Toward an Emancipatory Theory of Communication. Communication 12:175-196, 1989 (published 1991).
Imaging, Computing and Designing Minds. Design Management Journal 2,1:29-36, 1991.
Eine häretische Kommunikation über Kommunikation über Kommunication über Realität. Delphin 13,2:52-67, January, 1990.
The Language of Objects, with Seppo Väkevä. Blueprint 52, June 1989.
Design muss Sinn machen; zu einer neuen Design Theorie. Hochschule für Gestaltung Offenbach's hfg-forum 14:24-30, November, 1989.
"On the Essential Contexts of Artifacts" or on the Proposition that "Design is Making Sense (of Things)." Design Issues 5,2:9-39, 1989.
Association, Agreement and Equity. Quality and Quantity 21:109-123, 1987.
Japanese translation of Exploring the Symbolic Qualities of Form, with Reinhart Butter. Industrial Design 139-140:10-13, 1987.
Monitoring the Symbolic Environment of Organizations, with Michael Eleey. Public Relations Review 12,1:13-36, 1986.
Information, Information Society and Some Marxian Propositions (Shortened version). Informatologia Yugoslavica 17,1-2:7-38, 1985.
Comment on Richard Buchanan's "Declaration by Design." Design Issues 2,2:71-72, 1985.
Communication from a Cybernetic Perspective. Informatologia Yugoslavica 16,1&2:51-78, 1985.
Die Produkt-Semantik öffnet die Türen zu einem neuen Bewustsein im Design. Form 108-109:14-16, 1984-85.
Exploring the Symbolic Qualities of Form, with Reinhart Butter. Innovations 3,2:4-9, 1984.
An Epistemological Foundation for Communication. Journal of Communication 34,3:21-36, 1984.
An Algorithm for Identifying Structural Models of Multi-variate Data. International Journal of Systems Science 7:63-79, 1981.
On the Cybernetics of Time, Systemsletter 7,1:1-2, 1978.
Reliability of Binary Attribute Data. Biometrics 34,1:142-144, 1978.
Some Principles of Information Storage and Retrieval in Society. General Systems 20:15-35, 1975. Reprinted in Communications 4,1:5-34, & 4,2:141-156, 1978.
Conclusions from the ASC Conference on Communication and Control in Social Processes, October 31-November 2, 1974 at the University of Pennsylvania. Kybernetes 4:188-189, 1975; Cybernetics Forum 7,1:22-23, 1975.
Adding Large Numbers by Computer. Journal of Cybernetics 3,3:13-14, 1973.
A Calculus for Disagreements: A Categorial Equivalence to Variance Analysis. General Systems 16:222-235, 1971.
Communication and the Genesis of Structure. General Systems 16:171-185, 1971.
Reliability of Recording Instructions: Multivariate Agreement for Nominal Data. Behavior Science 16:222-235, 1971.
The Expression of Values in Political Documents. Journalism Quarterly 47:510-518, 1970.
On Generating Data in Communication Research. Journal of Communication 20:241-269, 1970.
Estimating the Reliability, Systematic Error and Random Error of Interval Data. Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:61-70, 1970.
Values, Modes and Domains of Inquiry into Communication. Journal of Communication 19:105-133, 1969.
Produktgestalter Kontra Konstrukteur. Output 5+6:18-21, 1961.
Publications in Conference Proceedings
Design Discourse; A Way to Redesign Design. Keynote address to the Society for Science of Design Studies. Tokyo, Japan: December 6, 1998, in press.
A Field for Growing Doctorates in Design? Pages 207-224 in Doctoral Education in Design, 1998, Proceedings of the Ohio Conference, October 8-11, 1998. Pittsburgh: The School of Design, Canegie Mellon University, 1999.
On Human-Centeredness in Design. Proceedings of the International workshop on Semantics in Design and the Linguistic Nature of Things, Munich, Germany, February 18-20, 1998. http://semantics-in-design.hfg-gmuend.de
Stakeholder Theory. Proceedings of the International workshop on Semantics in Design and the Linguistic Nature of Things, Munich, Germany, February 18-20, 1998. http://semantics-in-design.hfg-gmuend.de
Human-Centeredness; A Paradigm Shift Invoked by the Emerging Cyberspaces. Keynote at a symposium on Connected Intelligence; Human Beings in Information Systems at the Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnology, Karlsruhe, Germany, October 27-28, 1997.
On the Embodiment of Recursive Communication (Theory). Pages 6-7 in Proceedings of the American Society for Cybernetics meeting on Cybernetics and Circularity in Chicago, May 1995.
Design muss Sinn machen; zu einer neuen Design Theorie. Paper presented at the International Design Forum, Ulm, Germany, September 2-4, 1988. Proceedings published 1989.
Regression Analysis Using Information Theory. Pages 1007-1012 in Len Troncale (Ed.) A General Survey of Systems Methodology. Louisville KY: Society for General Systems Research, January, 1982.
A Proposal for an Algorithm for Generating Loopless or Recursive Models of Multi-variate Data. Pages 299-304 in Len Troncale (Ed.), in A General Survey of Systems Methodology. Louisville, KY: Society for General Systems Research, January, 1982.
Q: An Interpretation of the Information Theoretical Q-measures. Fifth European Meeting for Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vienna, April 1980 and pages 63-67 in Robert Trapple, George Klir and Franz Pichler (Eds.) Progress in Cybernetics and Systems Research Vol. VIII. New York: Hemisphere, 1982.
On the Identification of Latent Functions in Multi-Variate Data. Fifth European Meeting for Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vienna, April 1980 and pages 31-42 in Robert Trapple, George Klir and Franz Pichler (Eds.) Progress in Cybernetics and Systems Research, Vol. VIII. New York: Hemisphere, 1982.
On Systems Thinking. Pages 13-21 in Paul Broholm and Nic van Dijk (Eds.) Systems Thinking and Social Science, Proceedings of a Symposium held at the Inter-universitaire Interfaculteit Bedrijfskunde. Delft, The Netherlands, November 15, 1979.
Cybernetic Properties of Helping; the Organizational Level, with Frederick Steier. Pages 89-94 in Richard F. Ericson (Ed.). Improving the Human Condition: Quality and Stability in Social Systems. Louisville KY: Society for General Systems Research, August 1979.
On the Identification of Structures in Multi-variate Data by the Spectral Analysis of Relations. Pages 82-91 in Brian R. Gaines (Ed.) General Systems Research: A Science, A Methodology, A Technology. Louisville KY: Society for General Systems Research, August 1979.
An Algorithm for simplifying the Representation of Complex Systems. Pages 1693-1702 in John Rose (Ed.) Advances in Cybernetics and Systems. New York: Gorden & Breach, 1974.
The Construction of Social Reality, by John R. Searle. New York: The Free Press, 1995. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 3,4:23-26, 1996.
Ecological Communication, by Niklas Luhmann. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Journal of Communication 41,1:136-140, 1991.
Angels Fear: Toward an Epistemology of the Sacred, by Gregory Bateson and Mary Catherine Bateson. New York: MacMillian, 1987. Continuing the Conversation 11:1-2, 1987, and Journal of Communication 38,3:167-171, 1988.
The Dream of Reality: Heinz von Foerster's Constructivism, by Lynn Segal. New York & London: Norton, 1986. Journal of Communication 37,2:155-158, 1987.
Basic Content Analysis, by Robert P. Weber. Beverly Hills CA: Sage Publications, 1985. Journal of the American Statistical Association 82:354-355, 1987.
The Sciences and Praxis of Complexity. New York: U.N. University, 1985. Journal of Communication 36,3:180-183, 1986.
Self-Organization and Management of Social Systems: Insights, Promises, Doubts and Questions, by H. Ulrich and G.J.B. Probst (Eds.). Berlin: Springer 1984. European Journal of Operational Research 27:253-254, 1986.
System and Structure: Essays in Communication and Exchange, by Anthony Wilden. London: Travistock Publications, 1972. Contemporary Sociology 5,3:291-292, 1976.
Gewalt im Fernsehen: Literaturbericht über Medienwirkungs-Forschung, by Helga Kellner and Imme Horn, Mainz, Germany: Universitäts-Druckerei, 1971. Journal of Communication 24,1:137, 1974.
Content Analysis: A Technique for Systematic Inferences from Communications, by Thomas F. Carney. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1972. Public Opinion Quarterly 38,1:155-157, Spring 1974.
Crime and Information Theory, by M.A.P. Willmer. Edinburgh and Chicago: Edinburgh University Press and Aldine Publishing Company, 1970. Journal of Communication 21,3:280-294, 1971.
Cybernetic Principles of Learning and Educational Design, by Karl U. Smith and Margaret Foltz Smith, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1966. AV Communication Review 15,2:216-218, 1967.
Wff'n Proof, The Game of Modern Logic, by Layman E. Allen. New Haven, Conn.: Box 71, 1962. Equations, The Game of Creative Mathematics, by Layman E. Allen. New Haven CT: Box 71, 1963. AV Communication Review 14,1:86-87, 1965.
Psychologie der Massenkommunikation: Theorie und Systematik, by Gerhard Maletzke. Hamburg: Hans Bredow Institut, 1963. Journalism Quarterly 41:592-594, 1964.
Umfragen in der Massengesellschaft: Einführung in die Methoden der Demoskopie, by Elisabeth Noelle, Reinbeck bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1963. AV Communication Review 12,4:468-470, 1964.
Film und Philosophie, Ein Essai, by Gilbert Cohen-Seat. Gütersloh: C. Bertelsmann Verlag, 1962. Film und Verkündung, Probleme des religiösen Films, by Gerd Albrecht. Gütersloh: C. Bertelsmann Verlag, 1962. Die Deutsche Filmmusik von den Anfängen bis 1956. by Hans Alex Thomas. Gütersloh: C. Bertelsmann Verlag, 1962. AV Communication Review 11,6:297-299, 1963.
Theorie der Massenmedien: Presse, Film, Rundfunk, by Erich Feldmann. München-Basel: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag 1962. AV Communication Review 11,3:64-65, 1963.
Research Reports and Proposals
A Content Analysis of Bias in Consumer Reports on Automobiles. A Report of Research. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1982 (mimeo).
Proof for and illustration of an algorithm that distinguishes structural models with loops from those without loops. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1981 (mimeo).
Development and Aid, A Study of Self-Organization in Bangladesh Villages. A Proposal for Research. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1978 (mimeo).
A Method for the Strong Associative Clustering of 2m Data. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1975 (mimeo).
A System for the Continual Monitoring of National Publicity for PBS Programming Report of a Pilot Study. With Mike Eleey. The Public Broadcasting Service, Washington DC, March 1973.
Some Patterns in Violent Interaction on Television. A preliminary report, Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1969 (mimeo).
Computer Programs for Multivariate Classification in Content Analysis. A research Proposal submitted to the National Science Foundation. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1969 (mimeo).
Suggested Domain and Structure of a Ph.D. Program in Social Communication Science. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1965 (mimeo.)
An Outline for BATIC: A Teaching Device for Demonstration of and Experimentation with Basic Automata Theory In Cybernetics and in Communications. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1964 (mimeo).
First Notes on Simulating Future-Directed Behavior of Very Large Social Systems on the Basis of the Message Content Circulating Within those Systems. Urbana: Institute of Communications Research, University of Illinois, 1964 (mimeo).
Einfluß der Farbe auf die Erkennbarkeit und Auffälligkeit von Objecten. With M.W. Perrine and Klaus Wegner. Technical Report 3, Ulm: Hochschule für Gestaltung, Research Center for Visual Perception, 1961.
Computer Programs and Instructions
CONSTRUCT, a computer program for confirmatory analysis of structural models for qualitative data using information theory. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1988.
A Computer Program for Strong Associative Clustering of 2m. Data. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1975 (mimeo).
A Computer Program for Agreement Analysis of Reliability Data (Version 4b), User's Manual. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, July 1973 (mimeo).
A Computer Program for Contingency Analysis, User's Manual. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1970 (mimeo).
A Computer Program for Analyzing Semantic Information Content of Symbols, User's Manual. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communication, University of Pennsylvania, 1970 (mimeo).
A Computer Program for Analyzing Multivariate Agreements, User's Manual. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1967 (mimeo), Version 2 (1970), version 3 (1973).
A Computer Program for Assessing Agreements Among Many Judges When Data Are Nominal-Scale-Recorded. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1967.
Other Papers and Work in Progress
Ecological Narratives; Reclaiming the Voice of Theorized Others. Chapter for a book edited by Jose Ciprut.
On the Otherness that Theory Creates. Chapter for a book edited by Jose Ciprut.
A Paradigm Shift Invoked by the Emerging Cyberspaces. Paper presented to a conference on "Connected Intelligence; Humans in Information Systems" at the Center for Art and Media, Karlsruhe, Germany, October 28-30, 1997. Also discussed at the conference on Design, Planning and Human Understanding of the American Society for Cybernetics, April 2-5, 1998, Santa Cruz, CA.
The Social Reality of Meaning. Paper presented at a workshop on The Meaning of Things, March 17, 1996, Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithonian Institution, New York.
Arguments in support of the proposition: Resolved that "Knowledge about Communication Can Only Be Known By the Knower," made during the Information Systems Debate on 1996.5.24 at the ICA Conference in Chicago IL.
The Semantic Turn; An Introduction to Product Semantics. Principal paper presented to a conference convened for this purpose on December 3-4, 1994, at the University of Ulm, Germany.
The Principle of Reflexivity. Paper Presented at the ICA Conference in Washington DC, May 27-31, 1993.
Recent Developments in Reliability Analysis. Paper presented at the ICA Conference in Miami FL, May 21-25, 1992.
A Calculus for Disagreements. Part I of a Larger Project on "Disagreement and Reliability". Philadelphia: The Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, October 10, 1991 (mimeo).
Stepping Stones Towards A Constructivist Epistemology for Mass Communication. Keynote address for a conference on Theories of Public Communication by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Publizistik und Kommunikationswissenschaft, Bamberg, Germany, May 8-10, 1991.
Information and Information and Information in Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School for Communication, mimeo. Requested for publication, 1990.
On Reflexivity in Human Communication. Paper presented at the 10th Temple Conference on Discourse Analysis, March 16-18, 1989. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania, 1989 (mimeo).
Toward a Cybernetics of (Mass-Media) Institutions. Sari Thomas and Nancy Signorielli (Eds.). Essays in Honor of George Gerbner, in press.
On Poppings Agreement Indices. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1988 (mimeo).
On Constructing People in Social Inquiry. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1986 (mimeo).
Communication from a Cybernetic Perspective, East and West? Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1982 (mimeo).
The Model as a Communication Channel; A Quantitative Approach. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1978 (mimeo).
A Spectral Analysis of Relations, Further Developments. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1978 (mimeo).
Reliability, The Case of Binary Attributes. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1978 (mimeo).
Validity in Content Analysis. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1977 (mimeo).
A Spectral Analysis of Relations. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1976 (mimeo).
A Non-parametric Test of the Significance of Difference Between One and a Sample of Partitions of the Same Level. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1973 (mimeo).
An Algorithm for Simplifying the Representation of Complex Systems. Paper presented to the International Congress of Cybernetics and Systems, Oxford, England, August 28-September 1, 1972. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1972 (mimeo).
The Recording Process. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1972 (mimeo).
What's Wrong with Content Analysis: A Methodological Critique. Paper presented to the Communication Theory and Methodology Division of the AEJ Annual Conference, Berkeley, California, August 1969. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1969 (mimeo).
The Structure of an Algorithm for Identifying Values Expressed in Written Text. Philadelphia: The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 1965 (mimeo).
Social Constructions of Reality. An inquiry into the principles and processes by which realities come to be socially constructed and discursively maintained. This seminar serves as an introduction to the emerging epistemology of communication. It develops language-based conceptual and analytical tools for such inquiries, including into why a reality might hide its constructedness. This enters the cognition of the inquirer into the sociology of the known and admits intervening into that sociology. It develops an epistemological ground and analyzes several taken-for-granted or objective facts, inquires into the languaging that constitutes them as such, and probes into possibilities for emancipation. The seminar uses the languages of critical scholarship and emancipatory pursuits, which are allied with feminist writing, cultural studies, and reflexive sociology.
Cybernetics, Systems and Media. An introduction to cybernetics and systems theory, whose concepts are fuelling the present information revolution. Students become acquainted with the formal building blocks for constructing models of communication and complex systems, whether these concern causal, cognitive, or social phenomena; with various theories of human interfaces with technology: cyborg, information, autopoietic, and coordination theories; and with second-order cybernetics, which offers a reflexive approach to understanding. The interdisciplinary scope of the course enables students to draw on knowledge from a diversity of empirical domains.
Cybernetics and Society. Models of communication and control are applied to various social phenomena and contrasted with other conceptual frameworks in the social sciences. Among the topics discussed are alternative conceptions of information and associated behaviors; control of and control within - contrasted with the exertion of power and empowerment; feedback, recursion and teleology of social organizations; autopoiesis, self-organization, self-observing systems and other forms of recursive networks of interaction; natural, social, and artificial intelligence; different manifestations of natural selection/ultra-stability in perception, cognition, self-repair, and immune systems; chaos theory.
Information in Qualitative Data. The course develops multi-variate methods for exploring a variety of qualitative data and simultaneously broadens concepts of information and communication in a variety of social settings. While qualitative data are common in social research, their systematic analysis has been largely neglected. Recent developments have facilitated the use of qualitative data as a source of insights. The use of information theory as a vehicle for exploration is particularly appealing to communication researchers in search of new theoretical perspectives.
Introduction to Qualitative Textual Research (formerly Semantics of Communication). Most social inquiries rely on linguistic data: written documents, letters, interview transcripts, field notes or published reports. The sole reason for their being is the meanings they have for particular readers. This course considers various theories of meanings, how texts are used, by whom, and in which institutional settings; and it explores the methods of analysis that these theories inform. It introduces several qualitative research traditions, presents case studies, and reviews the concepts, logic, and analytical models needed for independent qualitative research. The course is ethnographic in its approach to data collection (interviews, observational accounts); analytical in the way it probes its data (with models drawn largely from cultural anthropology); qualitative in the empirical methods it encourages (metaphor, conversation, and discourse analysis); dialogic in its respect for multiple voices (as opposed to the more familiar monologue); and critical or emancipatory in the consequences it aspires to.
Content Analysis. An introduction to the analysis of large bodies of textual matter: content analysis, also called message systems analysis, quantitative semantics, propaganda analysis, text analysis. The course inquires into the methods, empirical problems, and theories underlying these analytical efforts: sampling, text retrieval, coding, reliability, analytical constructs, computational techniques, and inferences. It demonstrates these with studies of mass media content, interview or panel data, and systematic efforts to provide legal evidence or draw valid inferences from personal documents. Students learn to design a content analysis and do the preliminary work on it. They may also perform a content analysis on already available data, develop a new analytical technique from available theories and test it, or they may explore relevant literature to solve a methodological problem in content analysis.
Seminar in Message Analysis. Advanced topics in the analysis of verbal and non-verbal message content will be considered and methodological or practical problems arising out of research projects will be solved in a seminar format. Among the topics that might be considered are: experiments with recording qualitative data, expansion of the system of agreement analysis, further formalization of data languages, attempts at validation, development of new analytical techniques and computer aided text analysis procedures, analytical use of available theories of cognition and symbolic behavior, exploration of systems that could integrate the results of different kinds of empirical research techniques with content analysis findings.
Language in the Social Construction of Realities. Departing from traditional notions of language as a medium, this course sheds light on the discursive practices that constitute the realities we come to live in and observe. Readings and lectures develop the concepts needed to understand how realities are socially constructed or 'languaged' into being. Seminar-like discussions and individual students' contributions offer opportunities to critically examine a variety of constructions of reality from this perspective: facts, emotions, social problems, race, gender, hegemony, family, science, technology, and more. Students learn to appreciate how their own identity and their own world is shaped by the language they use. They take with them analytical skills and practical abilities to alter if not the way social reality is constructed so at least their own participation in it.
Social Cybernetics. Basic ideas about communication in society are explored from a cybernetic and systems theoretical perspective. The course acknowledges the traditional assumptions of linearity (communication as an intentional and one-way process), but builds on the recognition that most social processes are circular, emerging, self-sustaining, and controlling their own destiny. It starts with simple circularities, such as feedback, moves through the biological idea of autopoiesis (the ability of living systems to create and maintain their own boundary while organizing themselves within it) to self-organizing social systems. Principles of information generation, processing, storing, and communication are discussed. Evolutionary aspects of cultural artifacts, such as rituals, and of technological systems are explored. The lives of large communication networks are examined, and paradigms of self-observing systems are developed.
Semantics in Design. The word "design" derives from "de + signare," to "mark," "to make things into signs" or to make them meaningful to their users. Starting with the axiom that humans do not respond to the physics of things but to what they mean to them, the course explores how artifacts, especially language-like or intelligent ones, constitute themselves in various social practices and in their users' understanding. Key to this approach is the recognition that artifacts are understandable only through their interfaces and that their design has to address these.