"The Effects of Graphic Warning Labels’ Vividness on Message Engagement and Intentions to Quit Smoking." Communication Research, 2017.

Yotam Ophir, Emily Brennan, Erin K. Maloney, and Joseph N. Cappella

The current study examined the effects of manipulating the level of vividness through the presence of various textual and visual components in the context of tobacco warning labels. An online experiment was conducted (N = 2,165) to examine whether increasing the vividness of warning labels, using narrative and nonnarrative components, increased engagement with the messages, and the subsequent effects of vividness and engagement on intentions to quit smoking. Results showed that more vivid warning labels led to increased engagement, which in turn was linked to increased intentions to quit smoking. Specifically, the indirect effect of vividness on intentions to quit smoking was largely driven by the emotional component of engagement. Indirect effects of attentional engagement were only apparent at higher levels of vividness.

Published online April 2, 2017