"Potential Effectiveness of Pictorial Warning Labels That Feature the Images and Personal Details of Real People." Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2016.

Emily Brennan, Erin K. Maloney, Yotam Ophir, and Joseph N. Cappella
Research Area: 

In the United States, the Pictorial Warning Labels (PWL)  developed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 were found by the courts to be unconstitutional, in part because they were deemed to present an opinion rather than fact. Findings from this experimental study indicate that PWL that use the images and personal details of real people to convey factual information about the health effects of tobacco use may satisfy the FDA’s requirement for a set of PWL that (1) have the potential to positively impact the determinants of smoking cessation behavior, (2) meet legislative requirements under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and (3) may be more acceptable to the courts than the previously proposed and now dismissed PWL that carried non-factual images.